In this article, we will discuss the important differences between voltage and current, i.e. voltage vs current.
What is Voltage?
In an electric circuit, voltage is defined as the potential
energy per unit charge required to move the charge from one point to another in
the circuit. It is also known as potential
difference or electric tension.
In any electric circuit, the voltage is entirely responsible
for flowing current between two terminals. It is denoted by the symbol V and is measured in Volts.
Basically, voltage is the electric pressure that pushes the
electric charges in the circuit to travel from one point to another. A
measuring device called a voltmeter is
used to measure the voltage between two points in a circuit. Voltage is always
measured between two points, there is no such thing as the voltage at a single
point.
Based on nature, the electric voltage is of two types
namely, alternating voltage and direct voltage.
Overall, voltage is the key factor that makes electric
current flow through a circuit.
What is Current?
The rate of flow of electric charge or electrons through a
conductor is referred to as electric
current. In other words, the directed flow of electrons through a conductor
is termed an electric current. It is denoted by the symbol I and is measured in Ampere
(A).
As per the electron theory of matter, the electric current in a
circuit flows from the negative terminal to the positive terminal, this is called electron current. But conventionally,
the electric current is supposed to flow from the positive terminal to the negative
terminal, this is called conventional
current.
To measure the strength of the electric current in a circuit,
a measuring device named Ammeter is
used.
Electric current is also of two types namely, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC).
After discussing the basics of voltage and current. Let us
now discuss the differences between voltage and current.
Difference between Current and Voltage
The following table gives the key differences between voltage and current:
Voltage |
Current |
Voltage is defined as the difference of potentials between two points in an electric circuit. |
Current is defined as the directed flow of electric charge through an electric circuit. |
Voltage is denoted by the symbol V (constant voltage) or v (time-varying voltage). |
Current is denoted by the symbol I (constant current) or i (time-varying current). |
Voltage is the total amount of work done W required to move a charge Q from one point to another. |
Current is the time rate of flow of electric charge. |
Voltage is given by, `\V=("Work done"(W))/("Charge"(Q) )` |
Current is given by, `\I=("Charge"(Q))/("Time"(t))` |
The SI unit of voltage is Volt (V). |
The SI unit of current is Ampere (A). |
Voltage is a scalar quantity as it has magnitude, but not direction. |
Current is a vector quantity as it has magnitude as well as direction. |
Voltage is the energy given by a source to a charge to move from one point to another. |
Current is the movement of charge between two points in a particular direction. |
Voltage is the cause of the flow of current. |
Current is the result of voltage between two points in an electric circuit. |
Voltage is always across the element or two points. |
Current is always through the element. |
Voltage is in direct proportion with the resistance of the conductor. |
The current is in inverse proportion to the resistance of the conductor. |
According to Ohm’s law, voltage is given by, `\V=IR` |
According to Ohm’s law, the current is given by, `\I=V/R` |
Voltage is measured by using a voltmeter. |
Current is measured by using an ammeter. |
Hence, this is all about the major differences between
voltage and current in an electric circuit.